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The term “pedagogy” was derived from the Greek words “paid” (meaning “child”) and “agogus” (meaning “leading”). Thus, it is defined as the art and science of teaching children.

The term “Andragogy”
was coined by re searchers of adult learning in order to contrast their beliefs about learning to the pedagogical model. Malcolm Knowles first introduced th e concept in the US in 1968. The concept of andragogy implies self-di rectedness and an active student role, as well as solution-centered activities. It was derived from the Greek word “aner” (with the stem andr-) meaning “man, not boy.”

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHILDREN AND ADULTS AS LEARNERS:



COMPARISON CATEGORIES

PEDAGOGY

ANDRAGOGY

Self Concept



Children are dependent on teacher and enjoy dependence.




Expects to be taught. Takes no responsibility of teaching self.




Expects teacher to be dominant in determining what, when, and
how something is to be learned.



Adults expect and enjoy independence.




They like control, i.e., like to take control.




Learning is a process of sharing with the teacher and one
another.




Teacher has responsibility to encourage and nurture the process
of self-direction.

Need to Know

Children need to know what the teacher teaches in order to pass
and get promoted. Material does not need to be “life
applicable.”

Adult learners need to know why they need to learn something
before undertaking to learn it.

Experience

Children have few experiences relevant to what is being taught; therefore, teacher must create pertinent experiences.

Teachers or experts are the transmitters of experience.

Teacher seldom recognize experiences that children do have.

Elicits little discussion in class-teacher to student, one-way
communication

Have many experiences; therefore, teacher must draw on
adult-learner experiences.


Trade-off. Anyone in class also could share.

In some areas, students may have more experience than the

Elicits 2- and 3-way communication: instructor to student and
student to student. instructor.

ASSUMPTIONS (continued)


COMPARISON CATEGORIES

PEDAGOGY

ANDRAGOGY

Readiness to Learn

Children are not necessarily ready to learn. Teacher must decide
when it is time to learn specific skills or knowledge and tries
to create motivation.


We impose uniform curricula on children by classes and age
groups.

Adults normally come to class motivated and ready to learn,
because they’ve chosen the training.


Adults learn in order to cope with real-life tasks.

Adults do not group by age, sex, but by experience.

T i m e Perspective

Children are believed content to study for the future. (“Someday
you’ll need this.”)


Children are believed content to only accept knowledge and
understanding level, not application level.

Pragmatic—want application today.



Can barely tolerate studying anything that can’t be applied to a
task they expect to perform.

Orientation to learning

Children and teachers of children are subject-centered and enjoy
being so. (1:00 reading, 2:00 math, etc.)


Learning is a process of acquiring subject matter content to be
used at a later time in life.

Adults and teachers need to be problem or task centered.

Learning is a process of increasing competence to achieve full
potential in life.
ADULT LEARNING
PRINCIPLES: /span>
1. FOCUS ON “REAL
WORLD” PROBLEMS. 2. EMPHASIZE HOW THE LEARNING CAN BE APPLIED.
3. RELATE THE LEARNING TO THE LEARNERS’ GOALS. 4. RELATE THE
MATERIALS TO THE LEARNERS’ PAST EXPERIENCES. 5. ALLOW DEBATE AND
CHALLENGE OF IDEAS. 6. LISTEN TO AND RESPECT THE OPINIONS OF
LEARNERS. 7. ENCOURAGE LEARNERS TO BE RESOURCES TO YOU AN D TO
EACH OTHER. 8. TREAT LEARNERS LIKE ADULTS. 9. *****GIVE LEARNERS
“CONTROL”*****
METHOD ADVANTAGES DRAW BACKS ADR Application

Trainer Presentation/Lecture

Keeps group together and on the same point. Time control is
easier. Useful for large group size (20 or more).

Can be dull if used too long without learner participation.
Difficult to gauge if people Retention is limited. are learning.

1. Do you think this method is appropriate for teaching 2. Why,
or why not?

YES NO

ADR?

Structured Exercise/Role Play
Aids retention. Allows practice of new skills in a controlled
environment. Learners are actively involved.

Requires preparation time. May be difficult to tailor to all
learners’ situations. Needs sufficient class time for exercise
completion and feedback

1. Do you think this method is appropriate for teaching ADR? 2.
Why, or why not?

YES NO
METHOD ADVANTAGES DRAW BACKS ADR Application

Individual Reading

Saves time (learners can read

Can be boring if used too

1. Do you thin this method
Assignments and
faster than trainer can talk).

long without interruption.

is appropriate for teaching

Individual Exercise

Material can be retained for later use. Insures consistency of
information

Learners read at different paces. Difficult to gauge if people
are learning.

ADR?
YES NO


2. Why, or why not?

Facilitated Group

Keep learners interested and

Learning points can be

1. Do you think this method

Discussion

involved. Learner resources can be discovered and shared.
Learning can be observed.

confusing or lost. A few learners may dominate the discussion.
Time control is more difficult.

is appropriate for teaching

YES NO

2. Why, or why not? ADR?
METHOD ADVANTAGES DRAW BACKS ADR Application

Case Study

Requires active learner involvement. Can stimulate performance
required after training. Learning can be observed.

Information must be precise and kept up-to-date. Needs
sufficient class time for learners to complete the Learners can
become too cases. interested in the case content.

1. Do you thin this method is appropriate for teaching

YES NO

2. Why, or why not? ADR?

Demonstration

Aids understanding and retention. Stimulates learners’ interest.
Can give learners a model to follow.

Must be accurate and Written examples can Trainer demonstrations
may be difficult for all learners to relevant to learners.
require lengthy preparation time. see well.

1. Do you think this method is appropriate for teaching

YES NO

2. Why, or why not? ADR?


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